2007 Estimated International Energy Flows

Clara Smith, Rich Belles and A.J. Simon
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Abstract

An energy flow chart or “atlas” for 136 countries has been constructed from data maintained by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and estimates of energy use patterns for the year 2007. Approximately 490 exajoules (460 quadrillion BTU) of primary energy are used in aggregate by these countries each year. While the basic structure of the energy system is consistent from country to country, patterns of resource use and consumption vary. Energy can be visualized as it flows from resources (i.e. coal, petroleum, natural gas) through transformations such as electricity generation to end uses (i.e. residential, commercial, industrial, transportation). These flow patterns are visualized in this atlas of 136 country-level energy flow charts.

Abstract ……………………………………………………………………………. 1
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………. 1
Flow Charts

Individual National Energy Flow Charts ………………………………………. 2
Global Energy Flow Chart .………………………………………………137

Analysis …………………………………………………………………………… 138
Flow Definitions ……………………………………………………………… 139
Conclusions …………………………………………………………………………… 146
References …………………………………………………………………………… 146

Introduction

Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as “Sankey Diagrams”) of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also conveys structural information about the system that manages those flows.

This is the first comprehensive package of worldwide country-level energy flowcharts that has been produced.

Energy use data is compiled by the IEA in the publications: Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries and Energy Balances of OECD Countries. These publications are updated annually and generally report data for the time period two years prior to its year of update (ie. the 2009 update records energy use in 2007). IEA data contains information on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each of the economic sectors.

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